How wool and fibers are made into yarn

Update: 05-04-2022
Abst: There are wool mixed yarn polyester film fiber ways to prepare and spin fleece and fiber into yarn. This exciting variety can be attributed to similar...
There are wool mixed yarn polyester film fiber ways to prepare and spin fleece and fiber into yarn. This exciting variety can be attributed to similarly multiple factors such as individual spinning style and preference, fleece and fiber characteristics, or even environmental considerations like humidity levels. At Brooklyn Tweed, we employ two basic spinning methods that occupy either end of this broad spectrum of possibility: woolen-spinning and worsted-spinning.These two spinning techniques are also the basic, standardized methods employed in commercial yarn production . Gibson-Roberts and Deborah Robson, more and more spinning mills today follow a hand spinning approach to commercial spinning, adapting processing and spinning techniques to enhance the natural characteristics of a particular fiber or to achieve a yarn well-suited for specific kinds of knitted fabric.
 
In this installment of our Foundations series, we explain the differences between how our woolen-spun and worsted-spun  yarn families are produced, as well as describe the different kinds of fabrics one can achieve with either kind of yarn.Before beginning the process of spinning our woolen-spun yarns, the fiber is first cleaned and then dyed in the fleece. Scouring, the process in which fleece is cleaned, removes dirt and excess lanolin from the raw wool. To produce our heathered colors, the scoured fleece is then dyed in a range of intensely saturated base solids, which are then blended together during the spinning process using percentages of the base colors unique to each colorway.To begin the spinning process, a picker is used to loosely separate large masses of fiber into smaller ones and to mix the heathered shades of our woolen-spun yarns.
 
After picking, the fiber goes through a carder, a machine with several rolling cylinders covered in metal teeth. The carder opens up the fiber and blends it evenly, resulting in a thin cloud- or web-like sheet commonly known as a batt. The doffer, a large cylinder at the delivery end of the carder, then relays the batt into a condenser, which splits the batt into several thin, untwisted strands called.The terms roping and sliver are often used interchangeably. However, roping is more commonly used to refer specifically to this stage in woolen-spinning mills.The next step after preparing the fiber is to add twist, as this is key to making yarn  twist traps necessary energy and tension into the yarn, increasing strength and, in most cases, elasticity.
 
The amount of twist added when making individual plies of yarn is very important and can take the hand and behavior of the yarn in different directions. Any amount of twist, be it a lot or a little, is essential for creating knittable yarn.At the roping stage, the fibers are of irregular lengths, jumbled and nestled together in every which way. These carded strands are lofty, lightweight, and trap a lot of air. According to Clara Parkess The Knitters Book of Yarn, spinning or adding twist to the fiber while it is in a jumbled state (in other words, in a woolen-preparation) is one key aspect of woolen-spun yarns. Another essential characteristic of woolen-spun yarns, according to Respect the Spindle by Abby Franquemont, is that twist is allowed to play an active role in drafting the fiber — drafting refers to when the fiber is pulled slightly to open up and lengthen the fiber structure before being twisted.